Adolescents’ Identity Formation as Learners in Sukma Bangsa School Pidie, Aceh, Indonesia

Nurhayati Nurhayati,1* Ratna Sari Dewi,2 Eero Ropo,3 Pekka Räihä4

   1 Sukma Bangsa School, Pidie, Aceh, Indonesia School of Education, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
   2 Sukma Bangsa School, Pidie, Aceh, Indonesia School of Education, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
   3 School of Education, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
   4 School of Education, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
   * Corresponding Author



This study aimed to explore how adolescents performed towards their identity as learners in Sukma Bangsa School Pidie (SBP) through a phenomenographic approach. More specifically, the research had purpose to understand the way adolescents construct their learning identity in a school environment. The findings suggested that there were variations in the way adolescents experienced their learning identity that might encourage them to achieve different degrees of motivation, self-perceptions (self-efficacy, self-concept, and self-esteem), autonomy, and self-development towards their identity as learners. In this study, students exhibited a high level of self-efficacy and self-development, an average level of self-esteem and autonomy, and close to an average level of self-concept and motivation in constructing their identity as learners. The students also revealed that the highest accomplishment of their experiences was in showing their confidence towards learning attitude, whereas the lowest one was in adult attachment. Adult attachment therefore is pivotal to moderate students who have either low willingness to study or low self-conception.

[Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi pembentukan identitas remaja sebagai peserta didik di Sekolah Sukma Bangsa Pidie (SBP) melalui pendekatan fenomenografi. Lebih khusus lagi, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memahami bagaimana remaja membangun identitas pembelajaran mereka di lingkungan sekolah. Temuan menunjukkan adanya variasi cara remaja membentuk identitas mereka, yang mendorong mereka mencapai tingkat motivasi, persepsi diri (self-efficacy, self-concept, dan self esteem), otonomi, dan pengembangan diri yang berbeda. Dalam penelitian ini, siswa menunjukkan tingkat self-efficacy dan self-development yang tinggi, tingkat self-esteem dan otonomi yang rata-rata serta konsep diri dan motivasi mendekati tingkat rata-rata. Pengalaman siswa yang paling tinggi menunjukkan kepercayaan diri terhadap sikap belajar, sedangkan yang terendah menunjukkan keterikatan pada orang dewasa. Oleh karena itu, keterikatan pada orang dewasa sangat penting bagi siswa yang memiliki kesediaan untuk belajar atau konsepsi diri rendah.]


adolescent; identity; phenomenographic; learning identity; adult attachment

Full Text:



American Psychologist Association. 2002. “Developing adolescents: A reference for professionals.”

Bandura, A. 1977. “Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.” Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215.

Bandura, A., & Adams, N. E. 1977. “Analysis of self-efficacy theory of behavioral change.” Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1-4, 287-310.

Baumeister, R. F. 1999. “Self-concept, self-esteem, and identity.”

Benson, P., & Voller, P. 1997. “Autonomy and independence in language learning.” Routledge.

Berzonsky, M. D. 1990. “Self-construction over the life-span: A process perspective on identity formation.” Advances in Personal Construct Psychology, 1, 155-186.

Blueprint of Sekolah Sukma Bangsa. 2005.

Bong, M., & Skaalvik, E. M. 2003. “Academic self-concept and self-efficacy: How different are they really?” Educational Psychology Review, 15(1), 1-40.

Brockett, R. G., & Hiemstra, R. 1991. “Self-direction in adult learning: Perspectives on theory, research, and practice.” Routledge Series on Theory and Practice of Adult Education in North America. Routledge, Chapman and Hall, Inc., 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001.

Brown, J. D., & Marshall, M. A. 2001. “Self-esteem and emotion: Some thoughts about feelings.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(5), 575-584.

Coll, C., & Falsafi, L. 2010. “Learner identity. An educational and analytical tool La identidad de aprendiz.” Una herramienta educativa y analítica. Identidad y Educación, 353, 211-233.

Côte, J. E., & Levine, C. 1988. “The relationship between ego identity status and Erikson's notions of institutionalized moratoria, value orientation stage, and ego dominance.” Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 17(1), 81-99.

Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. 2007. “Developing, monitoring and reporting on personal learning goals.” State of Victoria.

Duriez, B., Luyckx, K., Soenens, B., & Berzonsky, M. (2012). A process‐content approach to adolescent identity formation: Examining longitudinal associations between identity styles and goal pursuits. Journal of Personality, 80(1), 135-161.

Erikson, E. H. 1968. “Identity, youth, and crisis.” W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. London.

Falsafi, L. 2010. “Learner identity: A sociocultural approach to how people recognize and construct themselves as learners.” (Doctorado interuniversitario de psicologia de la educacion. Doctoral thesis. Universidad de Barcelona)

Hiemstra, R. 1994. “Self-directed learning.” The Sourcebook for Self-directed Learning, 9-20.

Holec, H. 1979. “Autonomy and Foreign Language Learning.”

Kelly, W. A. 1965. “Educational psychology.” The Bruce Publishing Company. Milwaukee.

Khor, P. Y. S. n.d. “Enhancing students’ self-concept in the classroom.” Teaching and Learning, 7(1), 2-8.

Kolb, A. Y. & Kolb, D. A. 2009. “The learning way meta-cognitive aspects of experiential learning.” Simulation & Gaming 40(3), 297-327.

Lai, E. R. 2011. “Motivation: A literature review.” Person Research’s Report.

Lavoie, R. D. 2008. “20 tips to promote positive self-esteem in your kids.” Going Bonkers 1, 16.

Maertz. n.d. “Student guide to coping with emotional crisis.” University of Alberta.

Manning, M. A. 2007. “Self-concept and self-esteem in adolescents.” Student Services, 2, 11-15.

Marcia, J. E. 1966. “Development and validation of ego-identity status.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3(5), 551-558.

Matthews, J. S., Banerjee, M., & Lauermann, F. 2014. “Academic identity formation and motivation among ethnic minority adolescents: The role of the “self” between internal and external perceptions of identity.” Child Development, 85(6), 2355-2373.

Ormrod, J. E. 2008. “Educational psychology: Developing learners.” Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Pajares, F. 1996. “Self-efficacy beliefs in academic settings.” Review of Educational Research, 66(4), 543-578.

Rivers, S. E., Brackett, M. A., & Salovey, P. 2008. “Measuring emotional intelligence as a mental ability in adults and children.” The Sage handbook of personality theory and assessment, 2, 440-460.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. 2000. “Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being.” American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78

Sanchez, F. J. P., & Roda, M. D. S. 2003. “Relationships between self-concept and academic achievement in primary students.” Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology and Psychopedagogy, 1(1), 95-120.

Schunk, D. H. 1991. “Self-efficacy and academic motivation.” Educational Psychologist, 26(3-4), 207-231.

Schwartz, S. J., Zamboanga, B. L., Luyckx, K., Meca, A., & Ritchie, R. A. 2013. “Identity in emerging adulthood: Reviewing the field and looking forward.” Emerging Adulthood, 1(2), 96-113.

Slavin, R. E. 2005. “Educational psychology: Theory and practice.” Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

Song, L., & Hill, J. R. 2007. “A conceptual model for understanding self-directed learning in online environments.” Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 6(1), 27-42.

Thanasoulas, D. 2000. “What is learner autonomy and how can it be fostered.” The Internet TESL Journal, 6(11), 37-48.

Whannell, R., & Whannell, P. 2015. “Identity theory as a theoretical framework to understand attrition for university students in transition.” Student Success, 6(2), 43-52.

Wright, A. 2011. “What impact does the learning environment have on self-concept?”

Yahaya, A. 2004. “Self-concepts and motivation to learn among students.” Unspecified, 1-17.

Zimmerman, B. J. 2000. “Self-efficacy: An essential motive to learn.” Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 82-91.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Nurhayati Nurhayati, Ratna Sari Dewi, Eero Ropo, Pekka Räihä